Alphabetic writing and the old georgian script

Situated in a subtropical zone near the foot of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, Batumi is a popular tourist destination known for its varying weather-it is a bustling seaside resort during warm seasons, but it can get entirely covered in snow during winter. Much of Batumi's economy revolves around tourism and gambling, but the city is also an important sea port and includes industries like shipbuilding, food processing and light manufacturing. SinceBatumi has been transformed by the construction of modern high-rise buildings, as well as the restoration of classical 19th-century edifices lining its historic Old Town.

Alphabetic writing and the old georgian script

W originated as a doubled V VV used to represent the sound [w] found in Old English as early as the 7th century. It came into common use in the later 11th century, replacing the runic Wynn letter which had been used for the same sound.

Writing systems (mainly) used to write one language

In the Romance languages, the minuscule form of V was a rounded u; from this was derived a rounded capital U for the vowel in the 16th century, while a new, pointed minuscule v was derived from V for the consonant.

In the case of I, a word-final swash form, j, came to be used for the consonant, with the un-swashed form restricted to vowel use. Such conventions were erratic for centuries.

J was introduced into English for the consonant in the 17th century it had been rare as a vowelbut it was not universally considered a distinct letter in the alphabetic order until the 19th century. By the s, it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed.

To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on popular usage. Spread[ edit ] The distribution of the Latin script. The dark green areas show the countries where the Latin script is the sole main script. Light green shows countries where Latin co-exists with other scripts.

Latin-script alphabets are sometimes extensively used in areas coloured grey due to the use of unofficial second languages, such as French in Algeria and English in Egypt, and to Latin transliteration of the official script, such as pinyin in China.

Spread of the Latin script The Latin alphabet spread, along with Latinfrom the Italian Peninsula to the lands surrounding the Alphabetic writing and the old georgian script Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire.

The eastern half of the Empire, including GreeceTurkeythe Levantand Egyptcontinued to use Greek as a lingua francabut Latin was widely spoken in the western half, and as the western Romance languages evolved out of Latin, they continued to use and adapt the Latin alphabet.

With the spread of Western Christianity during the Middle Agesthe Latin alphabet was gradually adopted by the peoples of Northern Europe who spoke Celtic languages displacing the Ogham alphabet or Germanic languages displacing earlier Runic alphabets or Baltic languagesas well as by the speakers of several Uralic languagesmost notably HungarianFinnish and Estonian.

Definition - Georgian_alphabet

The Latin script also came into use for writing the West Slavic languages and several South Slavic languagesas the people who spoke them adopted Roman Catholicism.

The Serbian language uses both scripts, with Cyrillic predominating in official communication and Latin elsewhere, as determined by the Law on Official Use of the Language and Alphabet. Most of the rest of Asia used a variety of Brahmic alphabets or the Chinese script. It is used for many Austronesian languagesincluding the languages of the Philippines and the Malaysian and Indonesian languagesreplacing earlier Arabic and indigenous Brahmic alphabets.

Latin letters served as the basis for the forms of the Cherokee syllabary developed by Sequoyah ; however, the sound values are completely different. The Romanians were predominantly Orthodox Christiansand their Church, increasingly influenced by Russia after the fall of Byzantine Greek Constantinople in and capture of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchhad begun promoting the Slavic Cyrillic.

Under French rule and Portuguese missionary influence, a Latin alphabet was devised for the Vietnamese languagewhich had previously used Chinese characters. After the collapse of the Soviet Union inthree of the newly independent Turkic-speaking republics, AzerbaijanUzbekistanand Turkmenistanas well as Romanian-speaking Moldovaofficially adopted Latin alphabets for their languages.

Calligraphy Alphabet : European Alphabets

KazakhstanKyrgyzstanIranian -speaking Tajikistanand the breakaway region of Transnistria kept the Cyrillic alphabet, chiefly due to their close ties with Russia. In the s and s, the majority of Kurds replaced the Arabic script with two Latin alphabets.

alphabetic writing and the old georgian script

Although the only official Kurdish government uses an Arabic alphabet for public documents, the Latin Kurdish alphabet remains widely used throughout the region by the majority of Kurdish -speakers.

Inthe Kazakh government announced that the Latin alphabet would replace Cyrillic as the writing system for the Kazakh language by ISO basic Latin alphabet and Latin script in Unicode By the s, it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed.

As used by various languages[ edit ] Main article: Latin-script alphabet In the course of its use, the Latin alphabet was adapted for use in new languages, sometimes representing phonemes not found in languages that were already written with the Roman characters.

To represent these new sounds, extensions were therefore created, be it by adding diacritics to existing lettersby joining multiple letters together to make ligaturesby creating completely new forms, or by assigning a special function to pairs or triplets of letters.

These new forms are given a place in the alphabet by defining an alphabetical order or collation sequence, which can vary with the particular language. Although the four are no longer part of the English or Irish alphabets, eth and thorn are still used in the modern Icelandic and Faroese alphabets.

Some West, Central and Southern African languages use a few additional letters that have a similar sound value to their equivalents in the IPA. Africanists have standardized these into the African reference alphabet.The Glagolitic alphabet was the script of the liturgical language Old Church Slavonic, In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental on the phoneme level, that is, (Chapter 3 traces and summarizes the invention of alphabetic writing).

Logan, Robert K. (). The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and yunusemremert.comgh the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase, their letters share the same names and alphabetical order, and are written horizontally from left to the three scripts, Mkhedruli, once the civilian royal script of the Kingdom of Georgia and.

Modern European writing systems are alphabetic, not syllabic (like Ethiopic or Cherokee) or logographic (like Chinese). years or so, however, a standard set of punctuation marks has evolved which is generally used in common regardless of script. The Alphabets of Europe provides a repertoire of punctuation The letter GEORGIAN LETTER.

Old Georgian Schanidse () and Fähnrich () are both detailed descriptive grammars of the Old Georgian language. Sardschweladse and Fähnrich () is the first dictionary of Old Georgian in a widely accessible western language, and comprises more than 20, entries.

chapter 40 Early Georgian kevin tuite 1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXTS WRITING SYSTEM The Early Old Georgian documents are written in the alphabetic script known as mrglovani (“rounded”)orasomtavruli (“capital letters”), the oldest of the three Georgian scripts.

The Latin script is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. It is the standard script of the De chalcographiae inventione (, Mainz) with the 23 letters.

Georgian Bibliography and Resources