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Only clean water, also considered to be a basic human right, performs better. How one addresses the antivaccine movement has been a problem since the time of Jenner. The best way in the long term is to refute wrong allegations at the earliest opportunity by providing scientifically valid data.
This is easier said than done, because the adversary in this game plays according to rules that are not generally those of science.
This issue will not be further addressed in this paper, which aims to show how vaccines are valuable to both individuals and societies, to present validated facts, and to help redress adverse perceptions. Without doubt, vaccines are among the most efficient tools for promoting individual and public health and deserve better press.
While eradication may be an ideal goal for an immunization programme, to date only smallpox has been eradicated, allowing discontinuation of routine smallpox immunization globally.
Potentially, other infectious diseases with no extrahuman reservoir can be eradicated provided an effective vaccine and specific diagnostic tests are available. Eradication requires high levels of population immunity in all regions of the world over a prolonged period with adequate surveillance in place.
OPV-caused paralytic disease, directly or by reversion to virulence, and persistent vaccine-virus excretion in immunodeficient individuals are problems yet to be solved. In four of six WHO regions, substantial progress has been made in measles elimination; transmission no longer occurs indigenously and importation does not result in sustained spread of the virus.
Combined measles, mumps and rubella MMR vaccine could also eliminate and eventually eradicate rubella and mumps. Already, elimination of measles from the Americas, and of measles, mumps and rubella in Finland has been achieved, providing proof in principle of the feasibility of their ultimate global eradication.
Control of mortality, morbidity and complications For the individual Efficacious vaccines protect individuals if administered before exposure. Pre-exposure vaccination of infants with several antigens is the cornerstone of successful immunization programmes against a cluster of childhood diseases.
Complications such as congenital rubella syndrome, liver cirrhosis and cancer caused by chronic hepatitis B infection or neurological lesions secondary to measles or mumps can have a greater long-term impact than the acute disease.
Such breakthroughs are either primary — due to vaccine failure — or secondary. In such cases, the disease is usually milder than in the non-vaccinated.
In a German efficacy study of an acellular pertussis vaccine, vaccinated individuals who developed whooping cough had a significantly shorter duration of chronic cough than controls.
Milder disease in vaccinees was also reported for rotavirus vaccine. Some vaccines protect against infection as well. Sterilizing immunity may wane in the long term, but protection against disease usually persists because immune memory minimizes the consequences of infection.
Source drying Source drying is a related concept to herd protection. If a particular subgroup is identified as the reservoir of infection, targeted vaccination will decrease disease in the whole population.
In North Queensland, Australia, there was a high incidence of hepatitis A in the indigenous population. Vaccination of indigenous toddlers, with catch-up up to the sixth birthday, had a rapid and dramatic impact in eliminating the disease in the indigenous population and in the much larger non-indigenous population who were not vaccinated across the whole of Queensland.
Chronic hepatitis B infection leads to liver cancer. Vaccination against such pathogens should prevent the associated cancer as already observed for hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan, China.
However, the mortality and morbidity prevented translates into long-term cost savings and potential economic growth. Globally, the savings from vaccines were estimated by Ehreth in to be of the order of tens of billions of US dollars of direct savings.
Savings are enhanced if several antigens are delivered in a single vaccine. Combination vaccines bring the added benefit of better compliance, coverage, and injection safety. Introduction of a new antigen is facilitated with combination vaccines, ensuring early high coverage by maintaining previous immunization schedules, without compromising and sometimes improving immunogenicity and reactogenicity.
Staphylococcus aureus is viewed as a better long-term option to control the problem of increasing resistance. Travellers transmit and disseminate disease, as has been observed in the case of polio and in the dispersal of meningococcal strains by returning pilgrims from Saudi Arabia.
Other public health benefits In developing countries, vaccination programmes are cornerstones of primary health-care services.
The infrastructure and personnel required for an effective and sustainable immunization programme give opportunities for better primary health-care services, particularly in the critical perinatal and early infancy period. This has significant health, educational, social and economic benefits.
The potential of vaccines to protect populations from bioterrorism threats such as smallpox and anthrax has led many governments to ensure an adequate supply of the necessary vaccines in preparation against such an attack.
Promoting economic growth Poor health has been shown to stunt economic growth while good health can promote social development and economic growth. Health is fundamental to economic growth for developing countries and vaccinations form the bedrock of their public health programmes.
Vaccines have clear benefits for the disadvantaged. Pneumococcal immunization programmes in the USA have at least temporarily removed racial and socioeconomic disparities in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence, while in Bangladesh, measles vaccination has enhanced equity between high- and low-socioeconomic groups.
During protracted conflict it is possible to ensure that vaccination coverage remains high.Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide FE Andre a, R Booy b, HL Bock c, J Clemens d, SK Datta c, TJ John e, BW Lee f, S Lolekha g, H Peltola h, TA Ruff i, M Santosham j, HJ Schmitt k Introduction.
Vaccination has greatly reduced the burden of infectious diseases. The beginning of herbal medicine can be traced to ancient times. Primitive humans realized early that they strongly depended on nature for illness and everyday health. Early civilizations used their instincts, experiences, and tastes to figure out that they could use plants, minerals, and animal.
10 Important Firsts of Modern Medicine. Alan Boyle May 11, Share Stumble 9. Tweet. Pin 5 +1 6. In , the laws were relaxed to allow people to conscientiously object to receiving vaccines—but the benefits of vaccination programs to public health are well-supported with evidence. 2. Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals.
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