Ina secondary branch of the inspectorate was established and the Board of Education published the first of its annual Regulations for Secondary Schoolsdefining a four-year subject-based course leading to a certificate in English language and literature, geography, history, a foreign language, mathematics, science, drawing, manual work, physical training and, for girls, housewifery. The Regulations were written by Robert Morant and echoed his preference for traditional studies and his doubts about the higher-grade type of curriculum. The intention was clearly to preserve as much as possible of the traditional grammar- and public-school emphasis and spirit, and the assumption was that secondary education should be designed with university requirements in mind Lawson and Silver
Ina secondary branch of the inspectorate was established and the Board of Education published the first of its annual Regulations for Secondary Schoolsdefining a four-year subject-based course leading to a certificate in English language and literature, geography, history, a foreign language, mathematics, science, drawing, manual work, physical training and, for girls, housewifery.
The Regulations were written by Robert Morant and echoed his preference for traditional studies and his doubts about the higher-grade type of curriculum.
The intention was clearly to preserve as much as possible of the traditional grammar- and public-school emphasis and spirit, and the assumption was that secondary education should be designed with university requirements in mind Lawson and Silver Thus the Regulations reinforced the tendency of the new secondary schools to adopt the academic bias of the established ones.
There have been differing views on the Secondary Regulations. In the Hadow Committee argued that their aim was to ensure a certain measure of breadth and richness in the curriculum of Secondary Schools, and to provide against Schools recognised under that name offering only an education which is stunted, illiberal, unpractical or over-specialised Hadow But the Spens Committee commented in The first related to pupil teachers.
As noted in the section on Teacher training above, the Board had adopted a new policy for the training of pupil teachers; this had resulted in LEAs facing the urgent need for more generous provision of scholarships and bursaries so that intending teachers from public elementary schools could go on to secondary schools Hadow The second issue was the physical condition of children.
Margaret McMillan urged the Independent Labour Party ILP to call for medical inspections and effective physical education and, at the TUC inWill Thorne won support for his resolution demanding free meals, free medical advice and inspection, and efficient physical training for all children.
Birrell eventually accepted the principle of medical inspection of schoolchildren. This was the first step towards the creation of the school health service.
In January Reginald McKennawho had just become President of the Board, admitted that the system was not entirely satisfactory, but defended the policy of charging fees.
The issue was raised again in Mayand on this occasion it was announced that schools willing to offer at least a quarter of their places free to pupils from elementary schools would receive an increased grant.
McKenna said he hoped all local authority secondary schools would become free, but bywhen there were over a thousand schools on the grant list, only six charged no fees Simon Bythere were 1, grant-aided secondary schools in England and Wales withpupils Tawney In England there werechildren in secondary schools, of whom 82, had free places Tawney This seems remarkably over-enthusiastic, given that free secondary education had been established for just one third of the children in public elementary schools.
Furthermore, the areas with the greatest poverty, overcrowding and infant mortality were also those in which the fewest children were able to attend secondary schools Lawson and Silver Equally sadly, scholarship boys from the board schools were not always welcome: We are afraid that there is only one explanation possible.
It is a pity. If these parents valued the right things they would be only too glad of a stiffening of scholarship boys - that is, picked boys of special ability from the popular elementary schools.
They would see in it a guarantee that their boys would have the stimulus of a keen intellectual rivalry and a high standard of earnestness and accomplishment A caste system in schooling is a bad ideal The Guardian 20 March As a result of the arrangements for the education of pupil teachers and for the examination of candidates for free places, teachers began to devote more attention to the instruction of children under the age of So, while primarily designed to further secondary education, the regulations indirectly fostered the improvement of education in the elementary schools, and strengthened the case for a break in education at the age of 11 or 12 Hadow Junior technical schools In the Board of Education issued Regulations for a new category of junior technical schools sometimes known as technical high schools or trade schools.
These took children from elementary schools at thirteen or fourteen and provided two- or three-year post-elementary courses for both boys and girls.
Their role was strictly limited to training skilled employees for the needs of local industry, so that they were not seen to be competing with the grammar schools. They combined a general education with preparation for industrial employment at the age of 15 or 16 Hadow The Hadow Committee later described the development of the trade and technical schools as the half-conscious striving of a highly industrialised society to evolve a type of school analogous to and yet distinct from the secondary school, and providing an education designed to fit boys and girls to enter the various branches of industry, commerce, and agriculture at the age of 15 Hadow Secondary education for girls The number of secondary schools for girls in England and Wales increased during this period.
These schools achieved very high academic standards, with curricula embracing Latin and some mathematics and structured approaches to history, geography and modern languages - though not often science. To varying degrees they emulated the structures and ethos of the corporate institutions, preparing girls for public examinations and university entrance while maintaining the ideal of a distinct female education Stephens Intellectual education for girls was not yet intended to produce emancipated females competing with men for careers, but to allow middle-class women, freed from household duties by labour-saving devices and more servants, to develop intellectual and personal attributes enabling them to fulfil their traditional roles as wives and mothers more effectively.
It aimed also to prepare women to assist intelligently in voluntary social work and to act generally as guardians of liberal culture Stephens Many lower middle-class girls from public secondary schools took jobs from necessity; others increasingly from choice. Beforehowever, most took up modestly paid clerical posts, teaching and other jobs which did not compete with men.
Entrepreneurial activities remained male preserves and only a few women aspired to the higher professions and the more prestigious posts in civil and local government Stephens Elementary schools Curriculum In terms of its content and methods, elementary education had changed little since the end of the nineteenth century.Nov 15, · In Test Papers — Intermediate Group I 3 D.
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Chapter 7: Secondary education for some. Background. Britain was at the height of its power and influence around the world when Queen Victoria died .
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