Nice people expect most others to be nice, and mean people expect most others to be mean. That is not the issue.
John Maynard Smith Richard Dawkins The gene-centered view of evolution is a model for the evolution of social characteristics such as selfishness and altruism.
The formulation of the central dogma of molecular biology was summarized by Maynard Smith: If the central dogma is true, and if it is also true that nucleic acids are the only means whereby information is transmitted between generations, this has crucial implications for evolution.
It would imply that all evolutionary novelty requires changes in nucleic acids, and that these changes — mutations — are essentially accidental and non-adaptive in nature. Changes elsewhere — in the egg cytoplasm, in materials transmitted through the placenta, in the mother's milk — might alter the development of the child, but, unless the changes were in nucleic acids, they would have no long-term evolutionary effects.
Haldaneand Sewall Wrightpaved the way to the formulation of the selfish-gene theory. The effectiveness of such bias in producing adaptation is contingent on the maintenance of certain quantitative relationships among the operative factors. One necessary condition is that the selected entity must have a high degree of permanence and a low rate of endogenous change, relative to the degree of bias differences in selection coefficients.
It does not matter how fit and fertile a phenotype is, it will eventually be destroyed and will never be duplicated.
Sinceit has been known that DNA is the main physical substrate to genetic information, and it is capable of high-fidelity replication through many generations. So, a particular gene coded in a nucleobase sequence of a lineage of replicated DNA molecules can have a high permanence and a low rate of endogenous change.
It is generally destroyed with its organism, because " meiosis and recombination destroy genotypes as surely as death. And the high prevalence of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria and archaea means that genomic combinations of these asexually reproducing groups are also transient in evolutionary time: He uses this phrase as a synonym of the " meaning of life " or the "purpose of life".
The gene-centered view of evolution is a model for the evolution of social characteristics such as selfishness and altruism.. Acquired characteristics. The formulation of the central dogma of molecular biology was summarized by Maynard Smith. If the central dogma is true, and if it is also true that nucleic acids are the only means whereby information is transmitted between generations, this. Egoism and Altruism One important area of moral psychology concerns the inherent selfishness of humans. 17th century British philosopher Thomas Hobbes[->9] held that many, if not all, of our actions are prompted by selfish desires. Ethical egoism, which is the opposite of psychological egoism, is the argument that working in one's own self-interest is the right thing .
By rephrasing the word purpose in terms of what economists call a utility functionmeaning "that which is maximized", Dawkins attempts to reverse-engineer the purpose in the mind of the Divine Engineer of Nature, or the utility function of god.
Finally, Dawkins argues that it is a mistake to assume that an ecosystem or a species as a whole exists for a purpose. He writes that it is incorrect to suppose that individual organisms lead a meaningful life either; in nature, only genes have a utility function — to perpetuate their own existence with indifference to great sufferings inflicted upon the organisms they build, exploit and discard.
Organisms as vehicles[ edit ] Genes are usually packed together inside a genome, which is itself contained inside an organism. Genes group together into genomes because "genetic replication makes use of energy and substrates that are supplied by the metabolic economy in much greater quantities than would be possible without a genetic division of labour.
As Dawkins puts it, organisms are the " survival machines " of genes.
A gene never has a fixed effect, so how is it possible to speak of a gene for long legs? It is because of the phenotypic differences between alleles. One may say that one allele, all other things being equal or varying within certain limits, causes greater legs than its alternative.Altruism and Egoism - In popular culture, an altruistic person is connoted with being a genuine individual that plays as a role model for others, but an egotistic person is synonymous with an evil beast that squashes over anything to attain his own end.
The Freedom to Pursue Happiness and People Puzzled by What Appear to be Paradigm Paradoxes; a discussion of how people are often fooled, and do the fooling, with the 2 OPPOSITE meanings of selfishness.
Egoism vs Altruism Essay. The current political atmosphere has brought about a renewal in the interest of the works of Ayn Rand - Egoism vs Altruism Essay introduction.
The Russian-American novelist has once again been thrust into the limelight for a new generation of readers and political thinkers. Published: Mon, 5 Dec One of the most common human traits is egoism. Egoism is called the action of individuals for their own good. In other words, individuals act for their self-interest.
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Let #s be the Goedel number of yunusemremert.com following fact is useful for thinking about the foundations of mathematics: Proposition.
There is a finite fragment A of Peano Arithmetic such that if T is a recursively axiomatizable theory, then there is an arithmetical formula P T (n) such that for all arithmetical sentences s, A → P T (#s) is a theorem of FOL if and only if T proves s.