General and International Principles. This category includes those Principles which aim at the establishment of a welfare socialist state of India. Some of the following Directive Principles fulfill this objective of the Constitution:
Yet, in that time, the very nature of human society has undergone monumental transformations, and states have been at the center of each change.
While the relevance of states to modern society—and to modern forms of politics—is widely recognized, the precise nature of the state and state power is the subject of perennial debate. Over the course of the 20th century, the study of politics has ebbed and flowed from state-centered explanations of political phenomena to society-centered explanations, wherein the state is seen as epiphenomenal to more-microlevel processes.
Passionate debates continue over whether states are more or less coherent entities capable of autonomous, directed, state-interested action, or whether they fundamentally reflect the interests of the competing groups or classes that constitute society.
Is there a universal category of political organization called the state or are particular institutions associated with the state mediated through widely varying cultural practices and institutions? More contentious still are debates over the political implications of how states are defined and constructed, through language and through law, and whether these images and discourses reproduce structures of power that consistently favor certain groups at the expense of others.
Finally, as goods, capital, information, and people cross the borders of territorial states with increasing ease, some scholars question whether the notion of sovereignty has become obsolete or whether new ways of organizing social power will, if they have not already, relegate territorial states to the dustbins of history.
This article is organized according to a loose chronology of the major approaches to and thematic debates about the nature of the state since the early 20th century. An additional section Conceptual Foundations reaches back further in order to introduce some of the theoretical and conceptual forebears to a political science or sociology of the state.
General Overviews Several overviews provide useful introductions to theories of the state. Two classics are Dyson and Vincent The former is a much more comprehensive intellectual history of the state as an idea in western European thought; the latter a history of normative political interpretations of the state.
A more recent intellectual history is Nelsonwhich makes an explicit attempt to embed the Western tradition in its social context.
Marinetto and Dryzek and Dunleavy are the most up-to-date overviews, each a comparison of various approaches to the state. The authors of Dryzek and Dunleavy are more interested in comparing the classical theories to modern innovations and critiques, and so they spend more time to elaborate those foundations.
Both Barrow and Hobson are thematic overviews. The former is dedicated to parsing the history of debates within Marxist accounts of the state; the latter, within international relations IRa subfield of political science.
Critical Theories of the State: University of Wisconsin Press, Dated but extensive introduction to the major Marxist theories of the state. Theories of the Democratic State.
The State Tradition in Western Europe: A Study of an Idea and Institution. Great comparison of British and Continental traditions.
Originally published in Oxford: Each chapter written by an expert in its respective literature. The State and International Relations. Themes in International Relations.
Cambridge University Press, Also serves as a short but high-quality introduction to IR theory.
Social Theory, the State and Modern Society: The State in Contemporary Social Thought. Well-written and relatively current tour of the state in modern social theory. It has the advantage of being written by a single author: The Making of the Modern State: A concise book that integrates political, sociological, and ideological context into a historical analysis of the origins of the modern state and state theory.
Theories of the State. Includes chapters on the absolutist state, liberal constitutional state, Hegelian ethical state, Marxist class state, and the pluralist state, with discussion of the English and American traditions of pluralism.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page.Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism [James Burnham] on yunusemremert.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
James Burnham’s classic, Suicide of the West, remains a startling account on the nature of the modern era. It offers a profound. Support New America — We are dedicated to renewing America by continuing the quest to realize our nation's highest ideals, honestly confronting the challenges caused by rapid technological and social change, and seizing the opportunities those changes create.
“Suicide of the West,” subtitled “An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism,” is a classic work of political science, now fifty years old.
Free Essay: DISCUSS THE NATURE OF THE INDIAN STATE ACCORDING TO LIBERAL PERSPECTIVE. The state is being perceived as an "organised structural and. Following are the topics on which our followers have written (and writing essays) every Sunday to hone their essay writing skills.
The topics are chosen based on UPSC previous year topics. Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the yunusemremert.comlism as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards self-government and away from yunusemremert.com included the ideas of self-determination, the primacy of the individual and the nation, as opposed to the state and religion.