Mice and Rats Mice and Rats Mice and rats are well-known rodents people usually associate with cities. Known as commensalsome species of mice and rats have a long history of living close to people.
Bailey and Jacqueline N.
Generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder are the two primary classifications Report on animal behavior mice pathological anxiety in humans. The distinguishing feature of generalized anxiety disorder is a pervading sense of unrealistic worry about everyday life situations.
In contrast, panic attacks constitute the primary symptom of panic disorder. These events are characterized as sudden, extreme fear accompanied by autonomic nervous system arousal [ 3 ]. However, it is only recently that these concepts have been suggested as a means of differentiating situational anxiety-like behavior in rodents from anxiety that transcends the situation and is an enduring condition in the animal [ 11 ].
The former is the focus of the rodent behavioral tests reviewed in this chapter. Procedures are designed to trigger ethologically relevant conflict or conditioned behaviors.
The latter is most often associated with selective breeding, e. In an attempt to model human pathological anxiety in rodents, a wide range of behavioral testing paradigms have been developed [ 815—19 ]. Many of these tests induce a fearful response through an aversive event or anticipated aversive event.
Others integrate an approach—avoidance conflict designed to inhibit an ongoing behavior that is characteristic for the animal, such as contrasting the tendency of mice to engage in exploratory activity or social investigation against the aversive properties of an open, brightly lit, or elevated space.
The premise that basic physiological mechanisms underlying fear in rodents can be equated to similar mechanisms operating in humans provides a degree of face validity for these paradigms [ 7910 ].
In rodents, these responses are deemed appropriate and adaptive for the current conditions, whereas in humans, anxiety disorders constitute maladaptive or pathological responses to the existing situation.
Further exploration of rodent neuroanatomy and neurochemistry involved in fear extinction and inhibition of conditioned fear could offer important insights into effective targets for novel pharmacological treatment of pathological human anxiety [ 20 ].
Although rats have been the rodent of choice for much of the preclinical research on anxiety-like behavior, recent technical advances in molecular genetics have placed the mouse in the forefront of neuropsychiatric research [ 71321—26 ]. This has resulted in the adaptation of many well-validated behavioral tests of anxiety from rats to mice, with varying degrees of success.
This chapter offers a sampling of well-established tests of anxiety-like behavior in mice that use an ethological conflict. The interested researcher is directed to the classic source literature for more information on other types of anxiety-based tests, including conditioning paradigms [ 27—29 ], punishment-induced conflict tests [ 18193031 ], developmental models [ 3233 ], and aversive tests [ 534 ].
The behavioral paradigms described in this chapter are suitable for most inbred mouse strains. In addition, mice with targeted genetic mutations that do not alter exploratory drive, motor ability, or recognition memory are also suitable test subjects for these paradigms. Other factors to consider when designing experiments assessing anxiety-like behavior include, but are not limited to, the experimental history of test subjects, prior test exposure, differences in exploratory motivation, and whether the test is to be conducted as part of a test battery or administered as a single behavioral assessment [ 938—42 ].
Mice are social animals and are typically group-housed four to five per cage in same-sex home cages. Environmental conditions in the animal housing rooms should be as quiet as possible and consistent across experiments to control for extraneous variables that can significantly alter physiological and behavioral indicators of stress [ 3743 ].
Food and water are typically ad libitum unless the experimental design requires restriction. Avoid behavioral testing on days when, as a part of normal animal husbandry, home cages are scheduled for changing. Cage change typically causes an increase in general activity and stress levels [ 44—46 ].
Researchers should fully describe any special circumstances pertaining to housing and care of test subjects in their experimental methods.
To ensure consistency of experience prior to the test session, subjects are brought to the testing room or a common staging area, in their home cages, at least 1 hr prior to the start of behavioral testing. Individual mice can then be transported singly, in clean cages, into the testing apparatus.
Test room lighting, temperature, and noise levels should be consistent for all subjects.Although the loss of Sarm1 in older control mice (which did not develop ALS) protected these animals from axon damage caused by aging, in mice with ALS, researchers found no significant changes in survival or behavior, or in electrophysiogical or tissue outcomes.
October 3, What to Do About Wild Mice. Adapted from the book Wild Neighbors. House mice, like all animals, like to stay warm and fed, and often spend their lives comfortably inside buildings without causing any problems. On days when behavioral experiments were carried out, mice typically obtained all of their water during performance in the behavior apparatus (approximately 1 ml water per day).
On other days, including weekends and holidays, mice received 1 ml water per day. Many animals that communicate through odors emit chemical substances called pheromones Innate behavior is developmentally fixed and under strong genetic influence Learning is the modification of behavior based on specific experiences Imprinting is a behavior.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless yunusemremert.com is one of the most abundant species of the genus yunusemremert.comgh a wild animal, the house mouse mainly lives in association with humans..
The house mouse . This is a well-written, well-organized, well-researched book on companion animal behavior. Given the editors and contributors, I expected it to be an invaluable resource for those who work in shelters, but I was surprised that so much of the information is broadly applicable to many other settings.