Cris recognized that she needed to address the salient cause for sensory impairments and motor delays — child overuse of technology. Cris then identified four critical dimensions for child performance skill development as self, others, nature and spirit. No DVD, as this would defeat the purpose! Game-type product, self exploratory in nature No requirement for teacher or parent preparation time Kid-driven to optimize motivation FUN!
Specifically, the literature base on nutrient intake, body mass, and physical activity is described relative to cognitive development and academic achievement. The review of literature regarding the overconsumption of energy and excess body mass suggests poorer academic achievement during development and greater decay of brain structure and function accompanied by increased cognitive aging during older adulthood.
The review of literature regarding energy expenditure through the adoption of increased physical activity participation suggests increased cognitive health and function.
Although this area of study is in its infancy, the preliminary data are promising and matched with the declining physical health of industrialized nations; this area of science could provide insight aimed at improving brain health and cognitive function across the human lifespan.
Introduction Since the early s, BMI has been on the rise in children and adolescents across every demographic in the United States 1. Further, the percentage of obese teens has also risen from 5 to This increasing public health concern transcends all socioeconomic levels 1 ; however, certain minority groups have demonstrated greater risk for becoming overweight or obese 3.
At issue, almost one-third of children and adolescents in the US were overweight or obese in 3. Compounding this public health issue, physical activity trends have indicated that children are less active, less fit, and less healthy than previous generations 4.
Thus, the combination of an increase in body mass and a decrease in physical activity suggests that an energy i. Associated with this imbalance are several physical health issues such as type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, and metabolic syndrome 6. However, recent data also indicate that mental health issues may further be tied to poor health status 7.
Accordingly, the trends toward increased energy consumption and body mass along with decreased physical activity behaviors may have implications for cognitive health and scholastic performance. Trends in body mass, energy consumption, and physical activity An in-depth review of physical health trends is beyond the scope of this article.
However, a brief review of the current state of research on body mass, energy consumption, and physical activity behavior is provided in this section to set a proper background prior to describing the body of work relating these factors to cognitive health.
It has become a national priority to determine what factors are contributing to the rise in obesity as well as to decrease the number of overweight and obese children in the United States.
In response, there is an increasing body of literature focused on the nutritional patterns of children. For example, Vadiveloo et al. Their results support extensive national surveys conducted in the US 9 and found that the weekly diet consumed by children was comparable to the recommendations set forth by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 10 with respect to total daily energy intake and the percent of energy derived from each of the macronutrients e.
Additionally, Vadiveloo et al. However, inspection of the specific energy composition indicated that children were consuming well below the recommended standards for daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and fiber and above the recommended standards for saturated fat and sodium. Given that the children also fell short of the recommended guidelines for physical activity measured by step countsthese comprehensive data shed light on the development of overweight and obesity risk factors.
In support of this notion, only Current guidelines indicate that children should engage in 60 min or more of daily physical activity, and the majority of the time should be spent performing moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic activities 12 Unfortunately, as exemplified above, the vast majority of youth do not achieve these physical activity recommendations.
Increased competition for leisure time stems from the use of sedentary materials e. These trends remain as children progress through school; the average high school student accumulating over 3 h of screen time daily Other data indicates that these behaviors continue throughout life, with adults performing less physical activity 6 and more screen time as a function of leisure time activities learned during childhood 15 The implications of these behaviors in adults are higher BMI, lower aerobic fitness, and other ill health outcomes i.
Cognition and health behaviors Given the recent trends outlined above, youth in industrialized nations are at risk for decreased physical health. Of further concern is a growing body of literature demonstrating deficits in brain health and cognition as a result of lifestyle choices and behaviors 7.
Recent findings using a variety of experimental techniques have indicated that cognitive performance declines with decreases in physical activity and aerobic fitness and increases in body mass and energy consumption 57. Several recent studies have demonstrated that these factors influence cognition not only on a rudimentary level but also at the level of scholastic performance 17 The remainder of this article focuses on the relationship of these factors to cognitive health in youth although relevant adult data will be discussed to provide supportwith an emphasis on scholastic achievement and performance.
Nutrition and cognition Nutrition can substantially influence both the development and health of brain structure and function. Providing the proper building blocks for the brain to create and maintain connections is critical for improved cognition and academic performance.
It is thought that this process begins during gestation, because supplementing undernourished pregnant mothers, lactating mothers, and children with both energy and protein during the first few years of development had a marked, positive impact on measures of language, memory, and perception All volunteers from the villages had the opportunity to consume a supplement twice per day.
Volunteers in the other 2 villages were supplemented with a sugar drink that contained 59 kilo-calories. Regardless of the beverage supplement, all participants were also offered a vitamin and mineral supplement.
Interestingly, the data also indicated that cognitive performance was higher for those children whose mother consumed the protein-energy supplement during pregnancy and lactation, indicating that pre- and postpartum nutrition is influential in cognitive development Even short term fasting during preadolescence i.The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents.
This includes sample characteristics, geographical location, program framework and content, number of sessions, attendance, attrition, BMI, and behavioral outcomes.
This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of youth addressing outcomes of .
The Healthy People evidence-based resources identified have been selected by subject matter experts at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources. Each of the selected evidence-based resources has been rated and classified according to a set of selection criteria based, in part, on.
The Downfall of Homework on our Teens Schools are constantly bombarding students with an unnecessary amount of homework, which is causing an increase . Unhealthy diet contributes to approximately , deaths each year in the U.S., due to nutrition- and obesity-related diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. 1 In the last 30 years, obesity rates have doubled in adults, tripled in children, and quadrupled in adolescents. 2, 3, 4. UNICEF is committed to doing all it can to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in partnership with governments, civil society, business, academia and the United Nations family – and especially children and young people.
Dec 09, · Eighteen percent of children between the ages of 6 and 11 in the United States are overweight, as are % of adolescents between the ages of 12 and 19 (1).
The prevalence of overweight children and adolescents has continued to grow. Integrating Mental Health Care into the Medical Home. Practice Parameters and Resource Centers.
CME & Meetings Toggle. MEDIAINFLUENCES ONCHILDRENAND ADOLESCENTS: affect the behavior of children and adolescents. There is a strong association between percep- The immediate effects of media violence on behavior.