History[ edit ] Nationalised service s—s [ edit ] Inunder the French Revolutionthe first communication network was developed to enable the rapid transmission of information in a warring and unsafe country. That was the optical telegraphy network of Claude Chappe.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message There are considerable variations in the composition and responsibilities of corporate titles.
Within the corporate office or corporate centre of a company, some companies have a chairman and chief executive officer CEO as the top-ranking executive, while the number two is the president and chief operating officer COO ; other companies have a president and CEO but no official deputy.
Typically, senior managers are "higher" than vice presidentsalthough many times a senior officer may also hold a vice president title, such as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer CFO.
The board of directors is technically not part of management itself, although its chairman may be considered part of the corporate office if he or she is an executive chairman.
If that business is a subsidiary which has considerably more independence, then the title might be chairman and CEO.
In many countries, particularly in Europe and Asia, there is a separate executive board for day-to-day business and supervisory board elected by shareholders for control purposes.
In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, and these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This seemingly allows for clear lines of authority.
There is a strong parallel here with the structure of government, which tends to separate the political cabinet from the management civil service.
United States[ edit ] State laws in the United States traditionally required certain positions to be created within every corporation, such as presidentsecretary and treasurer.
Today, the approach under the Model Business Corporation Actwhich is employed in many states, is to grant companies discretion in determining which titles to have, with the only mandated organ being the board of directors. Under the law of Delawarewhere most large US corporations are established, stock certificates must be signed by two officers with titles specified by law e.
In some companies, the CEO also has the title of president. In other companies, the president is a different person, and the primary duties of the two positions are defined in the company's bylaws or the laws of the governing legal jurisdiction. The next level, which are not executive positions, is middle management and may be called vice presidentdirector or managerdepending on the size and required managerial depth of the company.
These titles are often combined with lower titles, e. The typical structure of executive titles in large companies includes the following:What's the best way of creating an internal communications strategy where one has never existed?
I originally published this article back in when I wrote a paper for Melcrum on how to to do exactly this as I was setting up a comms function as Head of Comms at LOROL. Update April I've just published a new. In this article, some major business strategies and their implication for HRM practices has been analyzed.
Human Resource Management (HRM) was once viewed as a support function to business organizations. But with changing times, aligning human resource strategies with corporate strategies have become very important for competing successfully with other organizations.
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